After ratification, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. Ultimately, they must play their part in keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period and making « efforts » to keep them at 1.5 degrees Celsius. Turkey and three major oil-exporting nations are among the seven countries that have yet to ratify the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Angola joined Kyrgyzstan and Lebanon and ratified in 2020, meaning the 190-nation agreement was formally approved by 197 nations. The decision to ratify the Paris agreement by a government order and not by a parliamentary vote could reflect the opposition of many officials to such environmental measures. But this is nothing more than a sleight of hand, as Russian industry is still operating much more slowly today than it was before the collapse of the Soviet command economy. In 2017, Russia`s emissions were 32% lower than in 1990. This will effectively allow it to pollute more while meeting the current goals of the Paris Agreement. Although the government has not been officially called « ratification, » it said in a statement that the decree meant the adoption of the agreement by Russia and « Russia`s approval of the obligations arising from the Paris agreement. » The country`s announcement means that there are now 11 countries to formally ratify the agreement. It is called Angola, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, South Sudan, Suriname and Yemen. According to the European Commission`s emissions database, the seven countries that have not yet ratified the agreement account for about 4% of global greenhouse gas emissions.
The United States, the second largest emitter after China, accounts for 13%. Russia, one of the world`s largest energy producers, remains one of the largest economies and polluters to have signed the agreement, but has not ratified it. The Eiffel Tower in Paris, illuminated in green to celebrate the entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the most ambitious agreement in history, on November 4, 2016 (Photo: Jean-Baptiste Gurliat/ Paris City Council) The Paris Agreement is part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) signed in 2015, which deals with the control, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions. Putin has reportedly been invited by his European counterparts to finally ratify the agreement and he may fear losing trade with key partners, such as Germany, which apply higher standards. On 19 August, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced that the country`s government had taken the decision to accede to the agreement and had made very serious commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 75% of 1990 levels over the next few years and to reach 70% by 2030. These serious commitments require a substantial reconstruction of the entire Russian economy. Climate scientist and founder of Germany`s New Climate Institute, Niklas Huhne, said Turkey was « reseming » the list of countries that do not yet need to ratify the agreement. In the same resolution, it was said that Russia would not ratify the agreement technically because of a legal nuance. Medvedev said Moscow would adapt the agreement to existing legal standards.
The legal impact of the non-technical ratification of the pact was unclear. International agreements are initially signed to indicate their intention to do so, but they only become binding through ratification. It may be an act of Parliament or some other formal adoption. Processes vary from country to country.